文章摘要
许长青,周丽萍.教育公平推动经济增长?——来自美国1978—2015年数据的经验分析[J].教育经济评论,2017,(4):82-102
教育公平推动经济增长?——来自美国1978—2015年数据的经验分析
Does Education Equity Promote the Economic Growth?An Empirical Analysis Based on Data from 1978 to 2015 in the United States
  
DOI:
中文关键词: 经济增长;教育公平;生产函数;VAR模型;美国
英文关键词: economic growth; education equity; production function; VAR model; the United States of America
基金项目:全国教育科学“十二五”规划2015年度项目“教育公平、社会流动与经济增长:新常态下的中国教育公平问题研究”(DFA150229);2014年度广东省教育体制综合改革重大项目“研究生教育质量评价及保障体系研究:国际视野与广东研究型大学的构建框架”(2014JKZ002)。
作者单位
许长青,周丽萍 许长青,中山大学政治与公共事务管理学院/中山大学中国公共管理研究中心;周丽萍,北京大学教育学院/教育经济研究所。 
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中文摘要:
      基于美国1978—2015年的数据,通过生产函数模型和多变量VAR模型,对美国教育公平与经济增长之间的关系进行了分析。结果表明:美国受高等教育人口比例迅速提高,教育普及化程度高,教育基尼系数呈现下降趋势;教育基尼系数与经济增长之间呈现“倒U型”结构,短期看教育公平对经济增长具有反向作用,但长期来看,教育公平对经济增长具有显著的积极作用;教育公平与经济增长之间并不存在双向因果关系,教育公平对经济增长具有显著的格兰杰因果关系,但经济增长对教育公平没有显著的格兰杰因果关系。美国社会制度性障碍导致收入差距进一步拉大,阻滞了社会流动,进而抑制了经济增长。美国的经验研究结果对中国推进教育公平具有一定的借鉴意义。
英文摘要:
      Based on the U.S. census data and the World Bank data during 1978—2015 and using the method of production function model and multivariate VAR model, this paper gives an evidence between education and economic growth in the U.S.. The results show that: firstly, the rate of population attained higher education is increasing with a rapid speed, the degree of universalization of education is high and education gini coefficient showed a trend of decline. Secondly, the relationship between education gini coefficient and economic growth assumed a “inverted U” shape. In the short term, education equity have reverse effect on economic growth; while in the long run, education equity has significant positive effects on economic growth. Thirdly, there is a one way causal relationship between economic growth and education equity, that is education equity has a significant Granger causality to the economic growth. The possible reason is that education equity may promote the social mobility and then promote the long term economic growth stability. But economic growth has no significant Granger causality to the education equity. The possible reason is that the unreasonable social institutional barriers lead to further income gap and block the social mobility. The empirical research results from the U.S.may have a certain reference for China to promote education equity and carry out more reasonable policies.
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